Studio Notes

How I might articulate our common interest related to our environment and our common natural resources. How I might articulate our common interest related to the Salish Sea

Our common interest

To protect, restore, and preserve our environment and our common natural resources

To protect, restore, and preserve the Salish Sea for the future of our community and the future of our world

Observations

If we have a right to a healthy environment and a right to our common natural resources, we have a responsibility to protect, restore, and preserve our common natural resources for our future.

If we focus on the challenges and costs of restoring our environment and the challenges and costs of the loss of our healthy environment and our natural resources, we might invest more in creating an environment which focuses our attention on reducing the degradation and damage to our environment of our current practices.

Our community depends on this resource, and so do a lot of other communities, and our world. Who in our community is contributing to the possibility of creating a healthy, safe, sustainable future for our natural community resource, – a common resource for our world

Our creative interests

To explore and excite interest and contribution to initiatives to protect and defend the Salish Sea from actions which could be harmful

To identify and inform our community about changes we could make to what we are doing and how we are doing things which could contribute to protecting, restoring, and creating a future for the Salish Sea

To inform our communities and excite interest in exploring opportunities to contribute

To learn how we can create community around our common interest in creating a future for the Salish Sea

To connect and increase the contribution of our community of common enterprise

To connect and create community with people and enterprises who are contributing to our community interests and our creative interests as a community

To identify ideas, initiatives, and enterprises which could contribute to our common interests and our common enterprise to protect, restore, and create a future for our environment and inform our community about the possibilities

To create opportunities for our community to contribute information, observations, ideas, and connections to increase our understanding and appreciation of our natural environment and contribute ideas, enterprise, and resources to opportunities for creative community enterprise that contributes to our common interests

To connect our communities of common interest in creating a future for our world with opportunities to explore, learn, and contribute to creating a future for our common natural resources and environment

To communicate ideas and opportunities for leaders at all levels of government, corporations, and justice system to ensure decisions made and actions taken respect our right to a clean and healthy environment and our responsibility to protect, restore, and preserve our environment and our common natural resources.

To communicate ideas and opportunities for leaders at all levels of government, corporations, and justice system to create new systems and new practices that contribute to ensuring our rights are honoured and our responsibility to one another to protect, restore, and preserve our environment and our natural resources for our future and for the future of our world

Exploring the Business Case

Exploring the business case and doing the economic analysis

The world salmon economy is $140 million. What kind of economy do we want to create?

A life sustaining economy, an experience economy, a creative economy

Immediate concerns

The proposed increase in the use of the Salish Sea as a transportation route for shipping bitumen, condensate, coal, or LNG

The pollution

The biological health

The fish

The invasive species

The atmosphere and toxicity

Community

Pender Island

The Pender Island Ocean Defenders
The Whale Trail

The Pender Islands Conservancy Association

About the Georgia Strait

Georgia Strait is essential to residents of the region for income, transportation, recreation and quality of life. It’s a working body of water that supports economic engines for the province including being a magnet for tourists from all around the world.

These waters have been, and continue to be, important for commercial, sports and aboriginal fishing. The shellfish industry is also economically important, with many shellfish growers located in communities around the Strait. Many others work on these waters in transport, towing and other forms of marine commerce, including being home to Canada’s biggest port, which handles 135 million tonnes of cargo every year. In addition, a wide range of small and large businesses depend on these waters – from restaurants to cement plants and logging boom grounds.

Georgia Strait is the heart of this region – for our communities and our economy, and for the many creatures who call it home.

Georgia Strait Alliance

Georgia Strait Alliance Annual Report 2016

Related Community

Defenders of Wildlife

Ocean Defenders Alliance

In 2014, an average of 14,000 whale watching trips were made by 31 whale watching companies in the Salish Sea. Over 400,000 people participated, the largest number ever recorded.

How do whale watchers find whales in the Salish Sea? – Vimeo

Southern Resident Killer Whales are critically endangered due to their small population size, reliance on endangered or threatened Chinook salmon runs for prey, high levels of toxin pollution, and sensitivity to boat disturbance. Killer Whales are intelligent mammals who communicate, locate their prey, and navigate using vocalization. Heavy ship traffic, sonar, and other man-made underwater noises can disrupt and confuse these sensitive beings.

Source: The Whale Trail

Whale Watching from Land on Pender Island
Pender Ocean Defenders

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Could the Salish Sea Become Canada’s Next World Heritage Site?
Initiative would help the world recognize ‘how special this place is.

About the Georgia Strait

https://georgiastrait.org/issues/about-the-strait-2/

 

Bridging Boundaries
by Christianne Wilhelmson, Executive Director, Georgia Strait Alliance

From Pender to Quadra islands, with stops on Mayne Island, Salt Spring and in Campbell River, I’ve had the pleasure of spending time in communities along the Georgia Strait over the last few months. I’ve met with supporters in coffee shops, schools, and church basements, and been warmly welcomed into people’s homes; like yours. It’s been wonderful to listen to what you have to say about what is on your mind and what concerns you most.

The issues vary from community to community—from tankers to Styrofoam pollution, from abandoned vessels to contaminants in ground fish. Your concerns are broad ranging and yet each one is vital to the health and longevity of our waters and our communities.

These conversations have spurred many thoughts and ideas, making me realize that Georgia Strait Alliance is doing work that you believe in, but yet there is so much more we need to do. They’ve also brought home how passionate you are and how much you’re doing in your local community to keep your part of the Strait healthy. It’s also highlighted to me the way boundaries seem to separate us in so many ways. Islands not far from one another are tackling issues on their own, with our cherished water seeming to sometimes create more than distance in nautical miles.

The issue of boundaries was also central to my experience at the Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference, which was held this past spring in Vancouver. The growing threats of noise and pollution from shipping, a reduction in salmon stocks, and the increased threats to orcas aren’t confined by nautical miles or borders. And yet the international border that separates BC and Washington State creates immense obstacles to protecting the Salish Sea, despite that being something you and I both want.

Never before had I seen this reality so boldly stated and been part of such tremendous efforts to gather leaders to figure out what we can do together—by combining our ideas—to bridge this boundary that inhibits our ability to create the healthy ocean that we need, and so very much want.

I’ve realized these past few months that in addition to the programs, campaigns and initiatives that address the threats to our region at a systemic level, another role Georgia Strait Alliance plays is being a connector. We share community stories so we can learn about what our Salish Sea neighbours are doing, and we find ways that you can help to make a difference.

Georgia Strait Alliance works across boundaries and borders—whether local or international—to create solutions to challenges and we’re able to accomplish that because of your support. It’s cliché to say “we’re stronger together” but when it comes to you, our work, and Salish Sea communities, it is true … as long as we don’t let boundaries get in the way.

From Strait Talk
Summer 2016

Salmon: the telling relationship between PRV and HSMI

Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation is now the third largest cause of mortality for salmon farming in Norway. But this is the industry’s problem. The real environmental concern is the spread of Piscine Reovirus (PRV) and thus Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) to wild salmon. Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation may never be discovered in wild salmon because the fish would be too debilitated by the disease to survive predators and the challenging conditions of oceans and rivers. Estimates are that most farmed salmon in BC have Piscine Reovirus.

The combination of PRV’s ubiquitous presence in salmon farms, its extreme virulence, and the fatal symptoms of HSMI could have devastating consequences for wild salmon populations.

Salmon: the telling relationship between PRV and HSMI
Island Tides, Ray Grigg


Fishing gear abandoned in ocean being collected in B.C. town for recycling
Megan Dolski
The Globe and Mail, 16.07.25

Oil spills in your backyard: what BC’s coastal communities need to know

The report reveals the predicted impacts of a major spill in the Salish Sea, and tells the stories of communities who have suffered devastating spills in the past.

It’s designed for you – concerned community members who want to get the facts about how an oil spill could impact your health, your local environment, your community and your finances.

Those facts are pretty shocking:

A major spill could deal a $1.2 billion dollar blow to Vancouver’s marine economy

1 million residents could be exposed to unsafe levels of benzene

Our endangered killer whales could dwindle to extinction

In the wake of the Exxon Valdez spill, police dealt with double the usual number of arrests, accidents and disturbance calls

There is a 79% – 87% likelihood of a spill in Burrard Inlet over the 50-year lifetime of the Kinder Morgan project

Bitumen sinks, and we don’t have the technology to clean it up. Even for conventional oil, only 10-15% of the spilled oil is able to be recovered during an average response.

We need better spill response to deal with the threats from the ships that are already plying our waters – and we need to reject projects like Kinder Morgan’s that dramatically raise the risk of a tar sands spill.

http://georgiastrait.org/oilspillsinyourbackyard/

Alexandra Woodsworth

Energy Campaigner

Salish Sea Bioneers

http://whidbeyinstitute.org/event/bioneers-2015/

Bioneers

http://www.bioneers.org/what-is-bioneers/our-mission/

http://thetyee.ca/News/2015/11/23/Scallop-Farmer-Acid-Test/

http://georgiastrait.org/orca-awareness-month/

https://thetyee.ca/News/2017/02/27/BC-Salmon-Farm-Disease-Confirmed/

https://thetyee.ca/News/2017/03/04/Norwegian-Disease-BC-Fish-Farm/

https://thetyee.ca/News/2017/02/27/BC-Salmon-Farm-Disease-Confirmed/

Restoring Our Oceans

125 Marine species are at risk in the Strait

Vancouver Festival of Oceans

The Vancouver Festival of Ocean Films is dedicated to protecting our environment for the next generations by raising interest and awareness of the ocean not only as a place for positive recreation, but also as a place of sustainable and responsible commerce, and a wilderness to be respected.

The net proceeds from the festival will be used to assist the Georgia Strait Alliance in their work to protect and restore the marine environment and promote the sustainability of the Georgia Strait, its adjoining waters, and communities.

The Vancouver Festival of Ocean Films is designed to present a broad-based experience to raise awareness of our relationship with the ocean and leave our audience more educated and excited.

http://georgiastrait.org/vancouver-festival-of-ocean-films/about-the-festival/

https://georgiastrait.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Oil-Spills-in-Your-Backyard-workshop-report.pdf

https://www.savethearctic.org/

https://www.savethearctic.org/en-CA/the-people-vs-oil/map-blog/we-are-all-warriors/

Jane Fonda – Toast the Coast

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ue_A4sI59CM

NEB Report

https://georgiastrait.org/standing-up-for-coastal-communities-at-the-national-energy-board/

https://georgiastrait.org/2015/06/oil-spills-update/

Plastic Pollution

http://upgyres.org/educate/

Eyes and Ears on the Pacific

http://tidescanada.org/impact_stories/eyes-and-ears-on-the-pacific-coast/

https://www.freshwateralliance.ca/en/mission

Is Northern Gateway Dead?

http://thetyee.ca/Opinion/2015/04/13/Northern-Gateway-Dead/

But the key to the plebiscite’s victory was a simple tactical fact: energy companies have not, so far, figured out how to move votes. They can easily outspend opponents in the “air war,” but they don’t have the lists, the organizing tools or the volunteer strength to get large numbers of people to the polls.

If the battle is fought on their field — the world of advertising, political donations, lobbying and strategic litigation against public participation (SLAPP) suits — “Big Oil” will win every time. But if a corporate giant like Enbridge can be drawn into an electoral skirmish, the odds are less certain.

Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/research-project-to-tackle-bcs-role-in-dealing-with-climate-change/article24202271/

 

What is at stake

The conversation

What risks? Whose risks? What benefit? Whose benefit?

Fossil fuel companies want to ship massive quantities of oil, coal and gas through the fragile waters of the Salish Sea. Accidents, leaks and oil spills, coal dust and toxic emissions. These projects put the people, ecosystems and economy of the Salish Sea at risk, and make the Pacific Northwest ground zero in the battle to stop climate change.

For our climate and our waters, there is no border.

For too long, the imaginary line drawn on a map between Canada and the United States has kept us battling each of these fossil fuel export projects in isolation from one another. It’s time to unite to expose the big picture and stand in solidarity with Coast Salish Nations and Tribes working to protect their territories. Let’s draw inspiration from the Pacific Northwest’s long tradition of green leadership and show fossil fuel companies that they picked the wrong part of the world to transform into a carbon corridor.

Americans and Canadians of the Salish Sea share one coast, one ecosystem and one climate. We are coming together across the border to choose a different future for our region.

To confront one of the most powerful industries on Earth, you have to know what it has in store for your community. Right now, more than a dozen new or expanded oil, coal or liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities have been proposed or recently approved on the shores of the Salish Sea, primarily aimed at exporting North American fossil fuels to Asian markets. These projects would have significant impacts on our air, ocean and wildlife, and would put communities and our climate at risk. If all the proposals in the region were approved, the Pacific Northwest would become one of the largest fossil fuel exporters in the world.

The Salish Sea is a special place. Its unique coastal environment supports a stunning variety of marine life, including wild salmon and endangered killer whales. These waters have been home to thriving Indigenous communities for thousands of years, and today our communities, regional economy and way of life all rely on the health and natural beauty of the Salish Sea. All of this is at risk.

Here are the facts:

308 million extra tonnes of carbon dioxide pumped into our atmosphere annually if all the projects go ahead

$11.4 billion estimated dollar value of the climate change damages caused by the additional carbon output from all the proposed projects

1,231 more ships that would join the already crowded waterways of the Salish Sea each year if all the projects were approved greatly increasing the oil spill risk

165,000 jobs in Washington alone that could be impacted by a major oil spill in the Salish Sea which could cost $10.8 billion

8 times more jobs could be created if we invested in clean energy sectors rather than fossil fuels
Source – http://salishseaaction.org/

https://georgiastrait.org/about-us/

https://www.wildernesscommittee.org/who_we_are/our_story

http://www.sanjuans.org/about_Friends.htm

http://350seattle.org/about/

 

 

 

 

 

SAFETY

Burnaby fire chief warns against expanding Kinder Morgan tank yard
Mark Hume, The Globe and Mail, May 14, 15

If fire erupted in the expanded tank farm proposed as part of Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain pipeline, it could create a nightmare scenario, with flames engulfing Burnaby Mountain and causing a massive urban evacuation.

That dire warning was issued Wednesday in a report by Chris Bowcock, deputy chief of the Burnaby Fire Department, who did a risk assessment of the tank farm, which would double in size, to 26 storage tanks, under the Trans Mountain proposal.

Burnaby fire chief warns against expanding Kinder Morgan tank yard
Mark Hume, The Globe and Mail, May 14, 15

Gulf Islands Centre for Ecological Learning
http://www.gicel.ca/about/

the concept of ecological learning programs within the communities,

Center for Ecoliteracy – http://www.ecoliteracy.org/about

The Center for Ecoliteracy’s core principles: Nature is our teacher; Sustainability is a community practice; The real world is the optimal learning environment; Sustainable living is rooted in a deep knowledge of place.

The Child and Nature Alliance of Canada
http://childnature.ca/about-alliance

Eagles and seabirds swirl in the skies above the Salish Sea, sheltered, islet-dotted waters teeming with seals, otters, orcas and pods of porpoises. Kayak, hike or cycle a lush paradise with rare eco-systems basking in a Mediterranean-like climate – the forested Gulf Islands are laced with trails leading to mountaintop viewpoints, lighthouses, and reminders of First Nations and pioneer pasts, while their shores and lagoons are a haven for thriving birdlife.
Gulf Islands National Park Reserve – http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/bc/gulf/index.aspx

Raincoast Conservation Foundation
http://www.raincoast.org/oil-free-coast/
http://www.raincoast.org/about-raincoast/

Vancouver Festival of Ocean Films – http://vfof.ca/wp/http://vfof.ca/wp/?page_id=12

The brand value of the Shaw Ocean Discovery Centre

The Shaw Ocean Discovery Centre received national media attention and was recognized by the editors of Where magazine as one of Canada’s top 10 new destinations in 2009.

2016.02.01 February

The secret to successful risk communications

When it comes to public opinion, there’s a common belief among companies and their communication teams that providing facts is the best way to sell your side of the story. The more information, the more likely the public will be on side, right? Wrong.

Look at high-profile examples across B.C. such as Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain pipeline expansion project or Enbridge’s Northern Gateway pipeline project. Despite an overwhelming amount of information provided by these companies and their armies of PR people, these proposed developments have become textbook examples of how not to try to achieve social license to operate.

Despite these companies’ assurances their projects will create jobs, are safe and respect the environment, the public continues to see the benefits as small and the risks unacceptably high. In fact, the B.C. government recently said it couldn’t support Kinder Morgan’s pipeline expansion project because the company isn’t offering enough details around how it would respond to a potential spill.

It’s not that information doesn’t matter. Society is structured around the use of information to back arguments and make decisions. However, a growing body of research on how people develop perceptions of risk shows that information alone does not change people’s fears and concerns about what is risky. Emotions play a huge part.

According to University of Oregon psychologist Paul Slovic, who has studied the various social and cultural factors that lead to disputes and disagreements about risk, the problem lies in the diverse views between how “experts” and the public view risk.

Experts look at risk as a calculation of probability and consequence. It’s about numbers. The public takes a more personal approach; their perceptions are around personal control, voluntariness, children and future generations, trust, equity, benefits and consequences.

Slovic says the mistake the experts (and the companies they represent) make is viewing themselves as objective and the public as subjective. They perceive the public as being too emotional and having irrational fear. The public’s attitude is then dismissed as laypeople that get the fact wrong and don’t understand the evidence.

“Laypeople sometimes lack certain information about hazards,” Slovic says. “However their basic conceptualization of risk is much richer than that of experts and reflects legitimate concerns that are typically omitted from expert risk assessments.”

This is where a company’s decision to “educate” the public to take its point of view can really backfire. People aren’t sitting around waiting to be told what to think. In fact, few of us like being told what to think.

Risk communicators need to be sensitive to this broader concept of risk. Facts aren’t just facts. They aren’t as objective as we assume they are. Facts and risk are subjective for both experts and the public. They are a blend of values, biases and ideology. The hypodermic needle theory of communication, where we administer the facts to cure people of their misunderstanding, doesn’t work.

James Hoggan is a public relations consultant. His latest book, I’m Right and You’re an Idiot: The Toxic State of Public Discourse and How to Clean it Up, will be published in May

Restoring Our Oceans

 

Oceans face ‘deadly trio’ of threats, study says

The world’s oceans are under greater threat than previously believed from a “deadly trio” of global warming, declining oxygen levels and acidification, an international study said on Thursday.

 

The oceans have continued to warm, pushing many commercial fish stocks towards the poles and raising the risk of extinction for some marine species, despite a slower pace of temperature rises in the atmosphere this century, it said.

 

“Risks to the ocean and the ecosystems it supports have been significantly underestimated,” according to the International Programme on the State of the Ocean, a non-governmental group of leading scientists.

 

“The scale and rate of the present day carbon perturbation, and resulting ocean acidification, is unprecedented in Earth’s known history,” according to the report, made with the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

 

The oceans are warming because of heat from a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Fertilisers and sewage that wash into the oceans can cause blooms of algae that reduce oxygen levels in the waters. And carbon dioxide in the air can form a weak acid when it reacts with sea water.

 

“The ‘deadly trio’ of … acidification, warming and deoxygenation is seriously affecting how productive and efficient the ocean is,” the study said.

 

Alex Rogers of Oxford University, scientific director of IPSO, told Reuters scientists were finding that threats to the oceans, from the impacts of carbon to over-fishing, were compounding one another.

 

“We are seeing impacts throughout the world,” he said.

Oceans face ‘deadly trio’ of threats, study says
Alister Doyle, Reuters Environment Correspondent
From 24 Hours, October 3, 2013

International Programme on the State of the Ocean

 

http://highseasalliance.org/about-us

 

Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre

 

The Squamish Nation and Lil’wat Nation have coexisted respectfully as neighbors since time immemorial. We have thrived on the bounty of the ocean, the rivers, and the land — living in close relationship with the world around us. Our cultures are grounded in rich, ancient traditions, and continue to grow and evolve in a modern world.

 

We have built the Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre to preserve our cultures and share them with others. We have treated the site with respect, building on the northern side of the property — leaving the forested area mostly untouched. The building is designed to evoke the longhouses of our Squamish people and the Istken (traditional earthen pit house) of our Lil’wat people with a modern architectural interpretation.

 

In 1997 the Resort Municipality of Whistler met with the Lil’wat Nation to consult about opportunities for the Nation’s participation and presence in Whistler BC. Out of these discussions, the idea of a world-class cultural centre was born and a relationship in the spirit of goodwill and cooperation evolved.

 

Mindful of the historic precedence of shared lands and the overlapping interests in land stewardship, the Lil’wat Nation met with the Squamish Nation in 1999 to discuss land use and planning in areas of traditional territory overlap. As a result, in 2001 the two Nations signed an historic Protocol Agreement, which formalized our mutual relationship. This Protocol Agreement commits us to continued co-operation in matters of cultural and economic development, and co-management of shared territory. The only agreement of its kind in Canada, the Protocol Agreement, formalized our mutual relationship.

 

The Squamish Lil’wat Cultural Centre in Whistler BC (where mountains, rivers and people meet), embodies the spirit of partnership between two unique Nations who wish to preserve, grow and share our traditional cultures. It stands as testimony to our proud heritage — from time immemorial to the present.

 

For more information on the Squamish Nation and Lil’wat Nation, please link to our websites at www.squamish.net and www.lilwat.ca.

http://slcc.ca/visit/about-us/

 

Culture and Community Strength

By instilling in its youth the strength of their culture, the Heiltsuk community is enjoying an economic revival

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/youth-camp-opens-the-eyes-of-first-nations-youth-in-bccommunity/article29393134/

Qqs Projects Society

http://www.qqsprojects.org/about/index.html

 

 

2016.04.01 April

 

Oil spills in your backyard: what BC’s coastal communities need to know

 

The report reveals the predicted impacts of a major spill in the Salish Sea, and tells the stories of communities who have suffered devastating spills in the past.

 

It’s designed for you – concerned community members who want to get the facts about how an oil spill could impact your health, your local environment, your community and your finances.

 

Those facts are pretty shocking:

 

A major spill could deal a $1.2 billion dollar blow to Vancouver’s marine economy

1 million residents could be exposed to unsafe levels of benzene

Our endangered killer whales could dwindle to extinction

In the wake of the Exxon Valdez spill, police dealt with double the usual number of arrests, accidents and disturbance calls

There is a 79% – 87% likelihood of a spill in Burrard Inlet over the 50-year lifetime of the Kinder Morgan project

Bitumen sinks, and we don’t have the technology to clean it up. Even for conventional oil, only 10-15% of the spilled oil is able to be recovered during an average response.

We need better spill response to deal with the threats from the ships that are already plying our waters – and we need to reject projects like Kinder Morgan’s that dramatically raise the risk of a tar sands spill.

http://georgiastrait.org/oilspillsinyourbackyard/

 

Alexandra Woodsworth

Energy Campaigner

 

 

2016.05.01 May

 

Oceanic Preservation Society

http://www.opsociety.org/

Racing Extinction – http://racingextinction.com/the-film/

We have never had a carbon dioxide spike as is happening now. Carbon Dioxide is acidifying the oceans. Warming oceans release a much more volatile greenhouse gas… methane

Sea Lice Exploded among Wild Young Salmon near BC Fish Farms: Study

Parasites spiked in Broughton area salmon pens, and hit decade high among wild juveniles, says new report.

Andrew Nikiforuk

from TheTyee.ca

2016.07.25

http://thetyee.ca/News/2016/07/25/Sea-Lice-Young-Salmon/

B.C salmon farms last year were besieged by sea lice, according to a new University of Toronto study, which also found a dangerously steep rise of infestation among young wild salmon who swam nearby.

Published in the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences last week, the study revealed that in 2015 penned salmon in three areas along B.C.’s Broughton Archipelago were attacked by a severe sea lice outbreak. The causes: warmer ocean water combined with record pink runs and poor co-ordination of louse treatment methods among fish farms. Researchers looked at building resistance to drugs used by fish farmers to combat the debilitating parasite but that global problem has not yet emerged in B.C.

Ecologists doing routine sea lice monitoring in nearby waters discovered a heavy burden of sea lice on wild juvenile salmon – the largest outbreak seen in a decade.

2016.08.01 August

 

Climate Change:

Is There Help for the Losers?

 

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries

Department of Geography, UBC

Canadian Water Research Society

Global Trans-boundary International Water Governance

Institute of Asian Research / Westwater Research

BC’s Climate Change Plan

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/bcs-climate-plan-reaches-olympian-heights-of-political-cynicism/article31464244/=

 

2016.09.01 September

 

| Panel:

Simon Donner

Associate Professor

Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries

Department of Geography, UBC

 

*Introducing our New Speakers!

 

*Peter Robinson

Chief Executive Officer,

David Suzuki Foundation

 

*Michael Byers

Professor

Canada Research Chair in Global Politics and International Law

Department of Political Science, UBC

 

Climate change in the next century could be extremely disruptive, posing a wide range of threats globally. Coastal cities flooded, agricultural lands scorched, the oceans disrupted, tropical disease spreading, glaciers melting–an increased and artificial global warming could induce horrific effects on the environment. It could also invoke sudden economic transition. As socio-economic systems adapt to combat climate change, some people, businesses, and nations will “lose”. Is there a guide to how we may mitigate these losses? And what is currently being done through international efforts in the midst of these challenges?

Is there help for the losers?

The Paris Agreement was a turning point for the planet, representing unprecedented accord on the need to take action to combat climate change through innovation and low-carbon solutions. Newly appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stéphane Dion, has made it clear that he aims to make Canada a leader in international efforts to combat climate change. In June of 2016, Prime Minister Trudeau signed the North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership with President Obama of the U.S. and President Nieto of Mexico in an effort to promote a “common commitment to a competitive, low-carbon and sustainable North American economy and society”. In the midst of these large proposals, questions still remain for the next century:

What does the “collapse of the oceans” mean?

How will industries such as agriculture, fishing, industrial farming, and livestock production need to change?

What will its effects on economic stability, trade and political interaction be?

How may Canada mitigate social, economic, and political fallout in its aim to become a global leader to combat climate change?

What role can and should policy play to help the losers?

Join the CIC Vancouver Branch and the British Columbia Sustainable Energy Association (BCSEA) on Thursday, September 22nd, 2016 at the St. Regis Bar and Grill in discussing these questions and others with our panelists on “Climate Change: Is There Help for the Losers?”.

Doors will open at 5:00pm, and the panel dicussion will begin at 5:30pm. Food will be served, and a bar will be available for beverage purchases.

Simon Donner is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of British Columbia, as well as an associate in UBC’s Liu Institute for Global Issues, The Biodiversity Research Centre, Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability (IRES), the Atmospheric Sciences Program, among others. He is also the director of UBC’s new “Ocean Leaders” program, which provides young researchers with the skills to address tomorrow’s interdisciplinary ocean and climate challenges.

Current areas of research include climate change and coral reefs; ocean warming and El Nino; climate change adaptation in the developing world; Canadian and international climate policy; public engagement on climate change.

Peter Robinson is the Chief Executive Officer of the David Suzuki Foundation. Peter holds a Doctor of Social Sciences, a Master of Arts in Conflict Analysis and Management, a Bachelor of Arts in Geography, as well as diplomas in Community Economic Development and Fish & Wildlife Management. After working as a park ranger in wilderness areas throughout British Columbia, he worked at BC Housing later becoming its CEO. Prior to his appointment as CEO of the David Suzuki Foundation, he was the CEO of Mountain Equipment Co-op. Peter has a long history of humanitarian work, including monitoring prison conditions with the International Red Cross in Rwanda in 1998, and leading a team for seven years that monitored detained asylum seekers in British Columbia. He believes that organizations with a social mission play a vital role in Canadian society, and over his career has sought to work in fields that consistently contribute back to their communities.

Michael Byers holds a Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Global Politics and International Law. His work focuses on issues of Arctic sovereignty, climate change, the law of the sea, and Canadian foreign and defence policy. He holds major research grants from ArcticNet and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Dr. Byers has been a Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford University, and a Professor of Law at Duke University. He has also taught as a visiting professor at the universities of Cape Town, Tel Aviv, Nord (Norway) and Novosibirsk (Russia). Dr. Byers is the author of the national bestseller Intent for a Nation and, most recently, Who Owns the Arctic? and the Donner Prize winning International law and the Arctic. He is a regular contributor to the Globe and Mail, National Post and Toronto Star.

2016.10.01 October

 

Salish Singing and Drumming

 

Salish sea case

Making a case for creating an environment for the future in BC – a new way of decision-making and governance

 

The Tsleil-Waututh Nation

People of the Inlet

“Our vision seeks to find a balance between values over time. It is holistic in nature.”

The Tsleil-Waututh Nation means “The People of the Inlet” and is one of many groups of Coast Salish peoples who populate the Pacific Northwest throughout British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. Our people have been very much shaped by our intimate knowledge of the lands and waters of our territory. Many generations of men, women and children have lived, had families and thrived in this area, due in no small part to the abundance of resources available. We therefore have what we refer to as a sacred trust, a responsibility to care for our traditional territory, and to restore it to its former state. This stewardship of the land, air, and water is so deeply ingrained in our culture because we understand that the health of our people is interconnected with the environment we inhabit.

The Tsleil-Waututh Nation

http://www.twnation.ca/About%20TWN/Introduction.aspx

The province of British Columbia has laid out five conditions that must be met before it will approve a heavy oil pipeline. Speculation is rampant that all parties, – Kinder Morgan, the federal government, and the provinces of BC and Alberta, – are strategizing behind closed doors to be able to put a check mark on each of BC’s conditions, but the conditions have not been met.

  1. Successful completion of the environmental review process

The National Energy Board review was a sham, and the Ministerial Panel process that followed failed to plug the gaps.

  1. World-leading marine oil response

Spill response can only be considered world-leading if it is effective at recovereing spilled oil. But the latest science proves that bitumen sinks, and there is no technology to clean it up once it does.

  1. World-leading land-based oil spill response

The province’s new land based spill regime puts industry in charge, and ignores fundamental principles of a world-leading spill regime recommended by its own experts

  1. Aboriginal and treaty rights are addressed

Sixteen BC First Nations are firmly opposed to Kinder Morgan. The government promised a new nation-to-nation relationship with Canada’s First nations people, and that means respecting their rights to withhold consent.

  1. BC receives a fair share of the economic benefits

Only 50 permanent jobs in BC would be created by the project. Provincial tax revenues would be microscopic. And with oil prices staying low, the share of pie that BC wants is shrinking. Kinder Morgan is a bad deal for BC

 

Georgia Strait Alliance

 

www.georgiastrait.org

 

The pipeline

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/kinder-morgan-emergency-plan-underestimates-effects-of-oil-spill-report/article24495099/

 

Exploring the case for the Kinder Morgan Pipeline

 

Kinder Morgan greatly underestimated the effects an oil spill could have on the seabirds and fish that migrate through the Fraser River estuary in its submissions to a National Energy Board panel on a proposal to expand its Trans Mountain pipeline, a newly released report says.

 

“More generally, the Trans Mountain application fails to adequately value the extraordinary biological productivity, diversity, and hence ecological importance of the estuarine ecosystem of the Fraser River,” Dr. Short said in his report. “The Fraser River estuary is arguably the most important estuarine ecosystem on the entire Pacific coast of North America, but the application fails to reflect this.”

 

Dr. Short also stated that the Texas-based oil company did not assess how quickly diluted bitumen would sink in the less dense spring and summer freshet coming out of the Fraser River and the effects submerged oil could have on shellfish and juvenile herring and salmon stocks.

 

The City of Vancouver, North Vancouver’s Tsleil-Waututh First Nation and the environmental non-profit Living Oceans Society commissioned the report.

 

Mike Hager

From Kinder Morgan emergency plan underestimates effects of oil spill: report
The Globe and Mail, 2015.05.19

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/kinder-morgan-emergency-plan-underestimates-effects-of-oil-spill-report/article24495099/

http://www.scribd.com/doc/265917677/Dilbit-and-Spill-Marine-Impact-Report

Living Oceans Society

http://www.livingoceans.org/about

Our most deeply held value is that conservation concerns come first. We cannot, as a species, achieve anything approaching sustainability while continuing to degrade our natural environment. At the same time, we view people and their communities as a part of the ecosystem and we consider their impact in our solutions.

Sound science is the basis of all of the work that we do. This value has earned us a solid reputation with governments, industries, media and coastal communities for knowing what we’re talking about.

Public policy affecting our oceans must be developed with public involvement, based on sound science and accountability. We strive to create the conditions for coastal communities, governments and industry to work together to create effective public policy. We respect traditional and local ecological knowledge and encourage diverse views to inform policy. Direct outreach to industry and regulations has always characterized our approach: we don’t complain, we encourage them to improve how they do business.

We deliver on our commitments and we hold government and industry accountable to do the same. We incorporate accountability measures in everything we do, both internally and externally.

Kinder Morgan Pipeline

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/justin-trudeau-should-reassess-his-scientific-foundation/article33229387/

“We are a government that believes in science – and a government that believes that good scientific knowledge should inform decision-making,”

The problem is, the scientific process the government relied on in making the Trans Mountain decision is suspect. That’s not just according to environmental critics of the project. In a letter to Mr. Trudeau on Nov. 15, more than 1,700 scientists early in their careers expressed doubts about the process by which major projects are assessed.

“We are concerned that current environmental assessments and regulatory decision-making processes lack scientific rigour, with significant consequences for the health and environment of all Canadians,” they wrote.

“As the next generation of Canadian scientists, we are professionally and personally affected by such decisions, especially regarding large-scale and long-term projects. Not only might our expertise be required to mitigate problems, but we have longer to live with the impacts, including a planet profoundly affected by climate change.”

Dogwood Initiative raises prospect of using B.C.’s Recall and Initiative Act to stop Kinder Morgan pipeline

Charlie Smith

Georgia Strait, 2016.12.05

http://www.straight.com/news/840516/dogwood-initiative-raises-prospect-using-bcs-recall-and-initiative-act-stop-kinder

Restoring Our Oceans

Why the Ocean Matters

The Air We Breathe

Every second breath you take comes from the ocean. No matter where you live, your life depends on the ocean. Beyond the breaths you take, the ocean plays a critical role in regulating our weather and climate. Changing ocean chemistry is threatening future generations?

The Food we eat

Our ocean is nature’s farmers market. More than 2.6 billion people rely on the ocean as a primary source of protein. Healthy food from our ocean means a healthy planet.

The Water We Drink

Time and time again, water returns to the ocean for renewal and purification to support life on earth. Our mission is a balanced, healthy ocean—free of the trash and pollution that can ruin the water we depend on every day.

http://www.oceanconservancy.org/the-ocean-matters/

http://www.oceanconservancy.org/who-we-are/

Pipeline

Prime Minister: You failed to do your job by approving pipelines

Grand Chief Stewart Phillip

President of the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs

The Globe and Mail, 2016.12.02

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/prime-minister-you-failed-to-do-your-job-by-approving-pipelines/article33199170/

Unanswered questions

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/trudeau-will-pay-a-high-price-for-trans-mountains-approval/article33098579/

  • How can Canada meet its climate-change commitments while approving the project?
  • How can the project be evaluated in the absence of a comprehensive energy policy and consideration of other viable transportation and energy options?
  • How can a decision be made without adequate assessment of the risks and benefits?
  • How can the project proceed in the face of so much opposition?

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/clark-says-ottawa-close-to-meeting-bc-pipeline-conditions/article33100580/
Although it was the most contentious of the five conditions when she laid them out in the summer of 2012, the Premier now says a deal on B.C.’s share of the economic benefits will not take long to complete. She expects it will be settled well in advance of the May, 2017, election: “I think the five conditions could be met much sooner than that.”

The remaining four conditions – world-class spill response, adequate consultation with First Nations, successful completion of the environmental review process and oil-spill prevention practices on land – are all but resolved.
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/bitumens-impact-on-ocean-life-is-uncharted-water-study-finds/article33117945/

The conclusions are pretty clear,” said Wendy Palen of Simon Fraser University in Vancouver.

“There are large, unexamined risks to the marine environment from oil sands products and that means that the approval of new projects is problematic, maybe even bordering on irresponsible.”

Bitumen is a mix of sand, clay and heavy oil. It is mined and mixed with fluids to enable it to move through pipelines.

Although the authors found reams of papers discussing the freshwater impacts of bitumen, saltwater studies are almost non-existent. The group found, for example, no examinations of how bitumen might affect food webs. Nor was there any work on the effects of bitumen spill cleanup. Basic information on toxicity is missing – partly because the exact composition of what goes through the pipe is considered a trade secret.

One of the few studies that exist found that bitumen tends to float on seawater until it weathers and churns together with sand, at which point it sinks. But even that much-publicized research was conducted in a lab, not the ocean.

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/pipelines-are-not-a-reconciliation-of-canadas-environment-and-economy/article33118291/

Put bluntly, the business case for the Trans Mountain expansion project is predicated on a world of unchecked global warming. In approving infrastructure that promises to increase Canada’s bitumen exports for decades to come, the federal government is not reconciling the environment and economy but, rather, placing a bet against the success of the Paris climate agreement.

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/energy-and-resources/ottawa-aims-to-calm-emission-fears-in-wake-of-pipeline-approvals/article33113166/

http://www.savethesea.org/STS%20ocean_facts.htm

 

Kinder Morgan

http://discoursemedia.org/power-struggle/likelihood-tanker-spill-debated-heres-working-together-fight-trans-mountain-expansion-project

 

Restoring Our Oceans

125 Marine species are at risk in the Strait

 

Vancouver Festival of Oceans

Georgia Strait Alliance

 

The Vancouver Festival of Ocean Films is dedicated to protecting our environment for the next generations by raising interest and awareness of the ocean not only as a place for positive recreation, but also as a place of sustainable and responsible commerce, and a wilderness to be respected.

 

The net proceeds from the festival will be used to assist the Georgia Strait Alliance in their work to protect and restore the marine environment and promote the sustainability of the Georgia Strait, its adjoining waters, and communities.

 

The Vancouver Festival of Ocean Films is designed to present a broad-based experience to raise awareness of our relationship with the ocean and leave our audience more educated and excited.

http://georgiastrait.org/vancouver-festival-of-ocean-films/about-the-festival/

Atlantic

The battle for the resources of the North Atlantic

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dx5oI9naMjc

Atlantic takes on the powerful interests carving up Ireland’s ocean resources following the fortunes of three small fishing communities as they struggle to maintain their way of life in the face of mounting economic and ecological challenges. As the oil majors drive deeper into their fragile seas, and the world’s largest fishing companies push fish stocks to the brink, coastal people and the species they rely on may be reaching a point of no return.

 

Exploring the case for the Kinder Morgan Pipeline

Kinder Morgan emergency plan underestimates effects of oil spill: report
Mike Hager

The Globe and Mail

May 19 2015

http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/british-columbia/kinder-morgan-emergency-plan-underestimates-effects-of-oil-spill-report/article24495099/

Kinder Morgan greatly underestimated the effects an oil spill could have on the seabirds and fish that migrate through the Fraser River estuary in its submissions to a National Energy Board panel on a proposal to expand its Trans Mountain pipeline, a newly released report says.

Its “fundamentally flawed” assessment of the ecological risk is based on only one spill in the Strait of Georgia, likely after a collision between a ferry and an oil tanker, and it failed to calculate the “considerably greater” impact of a spill closer to Burrard Inlet on migratory birds and important fish species in the Fraser River estuary, according to a report by a Seattle-based oil spill expert.

The City of Vancouver, North Vancouver’s Tsleil-Waututh First Nation and the environmental non-profit Living Oceans Society commissioned the report, which was released on Monday. The City of Vancouver has financed a string of reports critical of the expansion project and is expected to continue releasing them to the media as it prepares to submit its written evidence, in its role as an intervenor, on May 27 to energy board hearings on whether to approve the project.

Jeffrey Short, the study’s author, criticized the company’s application for stating that shorebirds are not “present in large numbers and are widely distributed” in areas potentially affected by a marine spill. He said if a spill hit the shores of Richmond’s Sturgeon Bank during the spring or fall migration, tens of thousands of shorebirds could die.

“More generally, the Trans Mountain application fails to adequately value the extraordinary biological productivity, diversity, and hence ecological importance of the estuarine ecosystem of the Fraser River,” Dr. Short said in his report. “The Fraser River estuary is arguably the most important estuarine ecosystem on the entire Pacific coast of North America, but the application fails to reflect this.”

Ali Hounsell, a spokesperson for the Trans Mountain expansion, said Tuesday in an e-mailed statement that Kinder Morgan welcomed the new report as part of the NEB review process. “It will be reviewed by our team of technical experts and we will respond more fully through our regulatory process,” Ms. Hounsell said.

Dr. Short also stated that the Texas-based oil company did not assess how quickly diluted bitumen would sink in the less dense spring and summer freshet coming out of the Fraser River and the effects submerged oil could have on shellfish and juvenile herring and salmon stocks.

Last week, the City of Vancouver released another study, sponsored in part by the City of Burnaby and the Tsleil-Waututh, that predicted shoreline devastation in much of Burrard Inlet if cleanup crews did not respond within 40 hours to a large tanker leaking about a fifth of its oil under the Lions Gate Bridge.

The group said the expansion proposal, which is wending its way through the National Energy Board’s approval process, would increase the number of tankers plying Burrard Inlet each month by nearly six times, and it is concerned that Kinder Morgan’s emergency and spill response plans “may not be adequate” in the event of the large spills modelled in the study.

One of the most vocal critics of the NEB’s review process withdrew as an intervenor on Tuesday in large part because the board turned down her request to allow the cross examination of Kinder Morgan employees. The board ruled that two rounds of written requests to the company would be enough to test their evidence. But Robyn Allan, an economist and former president of the Insurance Corp. of B.C., pointed out that in those two rounds, the NEB required the company to respond to only a fraction of the thousands of questions from intervenors.

Ms. Allan said in her withdrawal letter to the NEB: “The absence of oral cross has turned this public hearing into a farce, and the written information request process into an exercise in futility.”

http://www.scribd.com/doc/265917677/Dilbit-and-Spill-Marine-Impact-Report

kindermorgan.pdf (on desktop)

Pipeline

Observations

 

What we need to do is work together – Riki Ott

What we have learned

What could happen based on what we have learned

What questions does this raise

What human health risks are involved

Who is in our community of common enterprise

Why of each contributor

What creative interests can we excite creative community enterprise around

What are we doing

What ideas are we acting on

What are we contributing

What is the cost of our experience

What do we know

What do we need to know

How can we work together on common interests

Process – pull the interests apart – explore for overarching interests

 

Whistle Blowers Government Accountability Project

http://whistleblower.org/gulftruth

 

TW Nation

http://www.twnation.ca/en/About%20TWN.aspx

Hidden Health Risks of Oil Spills

http://sbspillactnow.org/

https://vimeo.com/128749245

City of Vancouver – NEB Evidence

http://vancouver.ca/green-vancouver/neb-evidence-library.aspx

Genwest Oil Spill Trajectory Models

https://www.youtube.com/watch?t=14&v=AlF9FwEiJgw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1gIspVaGolA

Salish Sea Action – What we Know

http://salishseaaction.org/

https://www.wildernesscommittee.org/sites/all/files/SalishSeaPledge_FossilFuelExports_Sources%20List.pdf

Georgia Strait Alliance

https://georgiastrait.org/about-us/

Friends of the San Juans

http://www.sanjuans.org/about_Friends.htm

Wilderness Committee

https://www.wildernesscommittee.org/who_we_are/our_story

350 Seattle

http://350seattle.org/about/

The BP clean up has created a toxic chemical Gumbo. Chronic health effects inclusing mental health disorders, cancres, liver and kidney disease, birth defects, and developmental disorders should be anticipated

American Journal of Disaster Medicine

More tanker traffic raises stakes for BC coast

Janice Edmonds

http://www.straight.com/news/467486/more-tanker-traffic-raises-stakes-bc-coast

Just because there has never been an oil tanker spill in B.C. waters does not logically presume that there never will be, particularly with the resulting increase in tanker traffic from one tanker per week to seven or eight per week if the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion proposal is approved [“Trans Mountain pipeline alarmism based on misinformation”, web-only]. That’s an increase of 60 tankers per year to 408 tankers per year. Statistically speaking, it is probable that there will be an incident in the next 10 years resulting from the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion, be it a spill from the pipeline or a tanker, an accident or spill at Westridge Terminal, or a fire, explosion, or chemical spill on the pipeline at Westridge Terminal or onboard a tanker.

Our government has management plans, training, and equipment for spills of up to 10,000 tonnes—despite the fact that some of the tankers expected in B.C. will hold much more than that; however, Kinder Morgan bears no financial responsibility for any spill that happens once a tanker leaves Westridge Terminal. Tankers carry insurance with a maximum liability of $1.35 billion, which sounds like a lot until you hear that estimates to clean up a spill on B.C.’s North Coast run as high as $9.6 billion. Who will be paying that hefty bill?

What’s more is that Kinder Morgan’s president was quoted in the Vancouver Sun saying that the company’s emergency-response plan will not be made public because of “very real security concerns that we have with respect to posting our full and complete plans where critical valves and critical access points to the system are delineated”. Shouldn’t B.C. residents, particularly those with tank farms and pipelines in their backyards, be aware of the Kinder Morgan emergency-response plan?

Also worth noting is that this pipeline and the tankers will be transporting dilbit (diluted bitumen), not highly viscous crude oil. Dilbit is a gooey mass extracted from the Alberta tarsands using steam and pressure. It does not flow freely and must be mixed with a proprietary mixture of chemical diluents based on its composition in order to move through a pipeline.

Many mixtures use benzene, a known carcinogen. In the event of a spill, the dilbit will separate into its components and dissipate, sending toxic chemicals into the air and water. Bitumen does not float like crude oil. It will sink to the ocean floor. Most industry experts agree that in the case of a spill, less than 50 percent of spilled oil is collected or evaporated, leaving more than 50 percent in the environment forever.

According to the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, tanker traffic has increased and spills have decreased, but if one reads its website carefully, yes, there was only one large spill greater than 700 tonnes in 2014. However, there were also four medium spills of seven to 700 tonnes and “several incidents” of fires and explosions onboard tankers, with an undetermined amount of fuel burned.

These incidents should be as alarming as an oil spill to B.C. residents because toxic fumes released into the atmosphere are extremely harmful.

Janice Edmonds / North Shore No Pipeline Expansion Society

http://www.nsnope.org/#!research/c10d6

http://media.wix.com/ugd/00a29f_a68e7b2323934a1e86a4b237acd02b03.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalamazoo_River_oil_spill

Kalamazoo River Oil Spill

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2007_South_Korea_oil_spill

 

Enbridge Pipe Dream

https://www.policyalternatives.ca/pipedreams

Three times as many jobs per dollar invested if we invest in green jobs as opposed to the oil and gas sector

Pull Together – http://pull-together.ca/

Unleashing the power of the vast majority of British Columbia who don’t want this pipeline and tanker project and build a hopeful future for generations to come

Raventrust – http://raventrust.com/about/

Sierra Club – http://www.sierraclub.bc.ca/about

Alert Project

http://alertproject.org/about-us/

Creating Our Recovery Systems

NOAA

http://www.noaa.gov/about-noaa.html

https://www.wildernesscommittee.org/who_we_are/our_story

http://www.sanjuans.org/about_Friends.htm

http://350seattle.org/about/

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120122152542.htm

Unprecedented, Human-Made Trends in Ocean’s Acidity

ScienceDaily Jan. 22, 2012 —

Nearly one-third of CO2 emissions due to human activities enters the world’s oceans. By reacting with seawater, CO2 increases the water’s acidity, which may significantly reduce the calcification rate of such marine organisms as corals and mollusks. The extent to which human activities have raised the surface level of acidity, however, has been difficult to detect on regional scales because it varies naturally from one season and one year to the next, and between regions, and direct observations go back only 30 years.

Why oceans matter – PDF on desktop

Restoring our Oceans

https://thetyee.ca/Presents/2017/05/22/win_festival_of_ocean_films/

The Nature Trust of British Columbia

Working together to conserve BC

http://www.naturetrust.bc.ca/about-us/overview/

Conservation Youth Crews

http://www.naturetrust.bc.ca/conservation-youth-crews/

 

 

HSBC Bank Canada has been the title sponsor of the province-wide Conservation Youth Crew program since 2006. HSBC Bank Canada, a subsidiary of HSBC Holdings plc, has more than 260 offices and is the leading international bank in Canada.

 

“At HSBC, we believe that supporting educational and environmental projects will lead to a better future and benefit the entire community.” —Lindsay Gordon, President and Chief Executive Officer, HSBC Bank Canada

Youth to inventory the size and contribution of our natural resources and what is at risk

Empirical evidence by knowledgeable contributors can explore our learning experiences so far and what we know about the nature of the risk